Nikki Language

Nikki is the language spoken on the moon Nikki.

Phonology

- Bilabial Coronal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
Clicks ʘ ǀ
Ejective Plosives
Aspirated Plosive
Voiceless Plosive t k
Voiced Plosive b d
Implosives ɓ ɗ ɠ
Ejective Fricatives ɸʼ θʼ χʼ
Voiceless Fricatives ɸ x χ ħ
Voiced Fricatives β ð ɣ ʁ ʕ
Ejective Laterals tɬʼ
Voiceless Laterals
Voiced Laterals ʟ̠
Voiceless Trills ʙ̥
Voiced Trills ʙ

There are thirty-four consonants and six vowels. No, wait! Come back! I'm not a crazy person, I swear! Structure (C)V(C)

Front Central Back
ɨ
e ə o
æ ɑ

Orange: Vowel Harmony Group 1; Blue: Vowel Harmony Group 2. Dictionary form of affixes uses the open (blue) form.

Grammar

Morphology

Syntax

Conjugation

Close Open
Indicative Ø-
Hortative do- dɑ-
Imperative kʼe- kʼæ-
Conditional pʰoʟ̠- pʰɑʟ̠-
Optative βɨ- βə-
Dubitative ɠo- ɠɑ-
Potential ɸʼopʼ- ɸʼɑpʼ-
Inferential ɠeχ- ɠæχ-
Hypothetical tʼɨǀ- tʼəǀ-

Declension

Close Open
ERG Ø-
ABS ko- kɑ-
VOC ɠe- ɠæ-
GEN dɮɨ- dɮə-
ABL bo- kɑ-
PROL ʙ̥e- ʙ̥æ-
INS ðo- ðɑ-

Vocab

[Dative / Locative Preposition]
Note: only used with negative verbs
ɓɑ
if-then
Note: en. if X, then y > nikki Y bɑ X
bo
Second Person Masculine Pronoun
βo
Dative / Locative Preposition
Note: only used with positive verbs
Topic Particle
dɮo
three (3)
e
[Question Particle]
ɠə
[Second Person Feminine Pronoun]
ɣe
[Affirmative Particle]
kʰɑθʼ
be made; be done; be created
Note: Passive
kʼe
one (1)
kʼebokʼe
zero (0)
kʼɨe
red
pʼɑ
[Allative Preposition]
ɸʼɨ
two (2)
ɸo-
four (4)
[Prefix: Multiplies root by 4]
θʼə
[First Person Pronoun]
tʼe
be destroyed; be killed
Note: Passive
tʰɑ
how many
Note: Takes Singular Noun
tɬɑ-
[Causative Prefix]
Note: this causes the subject of the previous sentence (ABS) to remain the subject (ERG), while the causer takes the ABS
tɬʼɑ
Yellow, Green
tɬʼe
[Gen-Abl-Prol Preposition]
Note: Only used for Pronouns
tɬə-
[Plural Prefix]
Placed before case marker
θʼɨe
white
ʕæo
black
ʕɨɸʼ
blue

Statistics

Universals Violated (Universals Archive):

1
Adp NP ⇒ N G
3
ergative alignment ⇒ also accusative alignment
4
IF the exponent of vocative is a prefix, THEN this marker has been reanalysed from a 1st person possessor marker on nouns or a 2nd person subject marker on verbs.
6
case with only zero exponence ⇒ functions of that case include that of encoding IntrSubj
7
IF morphemes of both number and case are present and both follow or both precede the noun base, THEN the exponent of number almost always comes between the noun base and the exponent of case.
15
OV ⇒ V Neg & V Caus & V Refl & V Recipr
59
When any or all of these items — demonstrative, numeral, descriptive adjective — precede the noun, they are always found in that order. If they follow, the order is the same or the opposite.
60
Adj Adv ⇒ N Adj & VO
62
Rel N ⇒ Postposition &/v Adj N
63
IF the adjective follows the noun, THEN the adjective expresses all the inflectional categories of the noun, while the noun itself may lack overt expression of one or all of these categories.
64
IF alignment is (exclusively or overwhelmingly) ergative-absolutive, THEN the causee of causative verbs derived from transitive verbs is a direct object.
69
Prep ⇒ (N A ⇒ N G)
70
Prep & ¬SVO ⇒ (N A ⇒ N G)
87
Prep ⇒ (N Dem ⇒ N Rel)
88
N Dem ⇒ N Rel
91
Prep ⇒ (N A ⇒ N Rel)
92
Prep ⇒ ((N Dem v N Num ⇒ N A) & (N A ⇒ N G) & (N G ⇒ N Rel))
93
pronominal gender in 2Sg ⇒ pronominal gender in 3Sg
97
Prep ⇒ (A Adv ⇒ A Mark Stand)
99
Rel ≥ Gen ≥ Adj ≥ (Dem/Num)
107
OV ⇒ Rel N & Adj N & Gen N
108
OV ⇒ Verb Interr
110
Rel N ⇒ Adj N
121
Prep ⇒ (N Num ⇒ N Rel)
124
IF there are aspirated stops (especially voiceless labial and alveolar), THEN there is /h/.
126
N Num ⇒ N Rel
141
Adj(shape) ⇒ Adj(color) & Adj(size)
158
IF an adposition occurs as both a dative marker and a locative marker, THEN it also occurs as an allative marker.
160
IF dative and transitive-clause locative are identically marked, even non-adpositionally, THEN allative is also identically marked.
163
Overt marking of dative or spatial functions does not alternate depending on the polarity (positive/negative) of the clause.
170
IF there are case affixes on nouns, THEN they are almost always suffixed.
173
Prep ⇒ (N Dem ⇒ N G)
174
Prep ⇒ (N Num ⇒ N G)
180
case-marking (Subj &DO) ⇒ SOV
183
case (noun) ⇒ case (pronoun)
187
IF there are /t/, /d/, and the voiced aspirate /dh/, THEN there must already be the voiceless aspirate /th/.
189
IF there are around seven cases or more, THEN locational relations with be expressed by case forms; but not vice versa.
190
IF there is a prolative case, THEN there will be an ablative case. IF there is an ablative case, THEN there will be an allative case. IF there is an allative case, THEN there will be a locative case.
209
IF there is an opposition of two vowels of the same aperture, THEN there is a corresponding vocalic opposition of a narrower degree of aperture.
218
mellow fricative ⇒ strident fricative
224
labial/dental stops ⇒ nasal /oral stops
230
rigid order ⇔ ¬case; ¬case ⇔ prepositions; flexible order ⇔ cases; cases ⇔ sparse use of preposition
238
rigid word order ⇒ Subj Predicate & VO & PrepN & NAdj & NRel & N PP
241
inflection ⇔ free order; ¬inflection ⇔ rigid order
255
number (noun) ⇒ the same number (pronoun)
258
IF alignment is predominantly ergative, THEN (i) subject is initial and verb final, (ii) subject and predicate are separated intonationally, (iii) object tends to be morphologically unmarked, and (iv) subject has a special morphological marker.
259
primary topicalization ⇒ accusative alignment
289
postconsonantal aspiration ⇒ prevocalic aspiration
297
Inversion of word order is always available to convey logical or emotional emphasis.
298
IF there is no category of definiteness/indefiniteness, THEN word order is used for distinguishing 'given' (coming closer to the beginning of the sentence) and 'new' information (closer to its end).
299
Reduplication is used as a productive grammatical way of word formation and inflection.
309
The citation form of the noun tends to be the nominative case form.
322
ergative (nouns) ⇒ non-zero allomorphs
350
In a dominant order the object and the verb are juxtaposed, uninterrupted by the subject (i.e., SVO, SOV, VOS, OVS, but not VSO, OSV).
352
In a dominant order no more than one of these three principles ... can be violated.
353
IF the dominant order is OS, THEN the order VS is also dominant.
364
IF morphology is agglutinative, THEN inflectional affixes tend to be longer.
366
IF morphology is agglutinative, THEN derivational affixes tend to have more complex syllabic structure.
373
IF there are high syllable-per-sentence and high syllable-per-word ratios & simple syllables & agglutinative morphology, THEN basic word order will be (S)OV.
376
topic markers ⇒ SOV
379
Every language has cleft constructions, either wh-clefts or it-clefts or both.
388
agglutinative ⇔ ¬ gender inflection
423
Prep ⇒ (¬ SOV ⇒ N Rel)
425
Pl (nouns) ⇒ Pl (pronouns)
429
gender ⇒ gender (3 person)
439
IF alignment is non-accusative, THEN there will be verb-initial order.
460
Verb taking an effected or annihilated object (in particular verbs meaning ‘to create’ and ‘to destroy’) are transitive in all relevant morphosyntactic respects.
461
With verbs with the general meaning 'destroy' or 'create', agents will be subject and patients direct object in basic (active) constructions.
472
ergative/nominative (noun) ⇒ ergative/nominative (3 person & V Dem)
488
In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object, the dominant order is always one in which the subject precedes the object.
499
In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the conclusion as the normal order in all languages.
525
Every language has a numeral system of finite scope.
527
Zero is never expressed as part of the numeral system.
534
IF a number is expressed by subtraction, or a subtraction occurs as a constituent of a complex expression, THEN the subtrahend is never larger than the remainder.
535
IF a number is expressed by subtraction as y-x, THEN every number z (z>y>n) is also expressed subtractively and with y as the minuend.
545
The degree of morphological fusion varies inversely with the size of the numerical value.
554
The construction with the interrogative 'how many?' is usually the same as that with the highest block of numerals.
586
agglutinative ⇒ ¬ gender inflection
587
IF there is grammatical gender, THEN morphology is flexive.
613
blue ⇒ green & yellow ⇒ red ⇒ black & white