Nikki is the language spoken on the moon Nikki.
There are thirty-four consonants and six vowels. No, wait! Come back! I'm not a crazy person, I swear! Structure (C)V(C)
Orange: Vowel Harmony Group 1; Blue: Vowel Harmony Group 2. Dictionary form of affixes uses the open (blue) form.
- 1 Category of Inflection per verb - Situational + Epistemic Probability
- Head marking
- Only Prefixes
- Adjectives; Pronouns undeclined
- Evidentiality marked by particles
- [REL GEN PREP] NOUN [ADJ DEM NUM]
- Adj - Adv; Standard of comparison - Adj
- Pos - Verb
- Initial Question Particle
- Zero-Negative (ie. unmarked negative; marked positive)
- [Dative / Locative Preposition]
- Note: only used with negative verbs
- Note: en. if X, then y > nikki Y bɑ X
- Second Person Masculine Pronoun
- Dative / Locative Preposition
- Note: only used with positive verbs
- Topic Particle
- three (3)
- [Question Particle]
- [Second Person Feminine Pronoun]
- [Affirmative Particle]
- be made; be done; be created
- Note: Passive
- one (1)
- zero (0)
- [Allative Preposition]
- two (2)
- four (4)
- [Prefix: Multiplies root by 4]
- [First Person Pronoun]
- be destroyed; be killed
- Note: Passive
- how many
- Note: Takes Singular Noun
- [Causative Prefix]
- Note: this causes the subject of the previous sentence (ABS) to remain the subject (ERG), while the causer takes the ABS
- Yellow, Green
- [Gen-Abl-Prol Preposition]
- Note: Only used for Pronouns
- [Plural Prefix]
- Placed before case marker
Universals Violated (Universals Archive):
- Adp NP ⇒ N G
- ergative alignment ⇒ also accusative alignment
- IF the exponent of vocative is a prefix, THEN this marker has been reanalysed from a 1st person possessor marker on nouns or a 2nd person subject marker on verbs.
- case with only zero exponence ⇒ functions of that case include that of encoding IntrSubj
- IF morphemes of both number and case are present and both follow or both precede the noun base, THEN the exponent of number almost always comes between the noun base and the exponent of case.
- OV ⇒ V Neg & V Caus & V Refl & V Recipr
- When any or all of these items — demonstrative, numeral, descriptive adjective — precede the noun, they are always found in that order. If they follow, the order is the same or the opposite.
- Adj Adv ⇒ N Adj & VO
- Rel N ⇒ Postposition &/v Adj N
- IF the adjective follows the noun, THEN the adjective expresses all the inflectional categories of the noun, while the noun itself may lack overt expression of one or all of these categories.
- IF alignment is (exclusively or overwhelmingly) ergative-absolutive, THEN the causee of causative verbs derived from transitive verbs is a direct object.
- Prep ⇒ (N A ⇒ N G)
- Prep & ¬SVO ⇒ (N A ⇒ N G)
- Prep ⇒ (N Dem ⇒ N Rel)
- N Dem ⇒ N Rel
- Prep ⇒ (N A ⇒ N Rel)
- Prep ⇒ ((N Dem v N Num ⇒ N A) & (N A ⇒ N G) & (N G ⇒ N Rel))
- pronominal gender in 2Sg ⇒ pronominal gender in 3Sg
- Prep ⇒ (A Adv ⇒ A Mark Stand)
- Rel ≥ Gen ≥ Adj ≥ (Dem/Num)
- OV ⇒ Rel N & Adj N & Gen N
- OV ⇒ Verb Interr
- Rel N ⇒ Adj N
- Prep ⇒ (N Num ⇒ N Rel)
- IF there are aspirated stops (especially voiceless labial and alveolar), THEN there is /h/.
- N Num ⇒ N Rel
- Adj(shape) ⇒ Adj(color) & Adj(size)
- IF an adposition occurs as both a dative marker and a locative marker, THEN it also occurs as an allative marker.
- IF dative and transitive-clause locative are identically marked, even non-adpositionally, THEN allative is also identically marked.
- Overt marking of dative or spatial functions does not alternate depending on the polarity (positive/negative) of the clause.
- IF there are case affixes on nouns, THEN they are almost always suffixed.
- Prep ⇒ (N Dem ⇒ N G)
- Prep ⇒ (N Num ⇒ N G)
- case-marking (Subj &DO) ⇒ SOV
- case (noun) ⇒ case (pronoun)
- IF there are /t/, /d/, and the voiced aspirate /dh/, THEN there must already be the voiceless aspirate /th/.
- IF there are around seven cases or more, THEN locational relations with be expressed by case forms; but not vice versa.
- IF there is a prolative case, THEN there will be an ablative case. IF there is an ablative case, THEN there will be an allative case. IF there is an allative case, THEN there will be a locative case.
- IF there is an opposition of two vowels of the same aperture, THEN there is a corresponding vocalic opposition of a narrower degree of aperture.
- mellow fricative ⇒ strident fricative
- labial/dental stops ⇒ nasal /oral stops
- rigid order ⇔ ¬case; ¬case ⇔ prepositions; flexible order ⇔ cases; cases ⇔ sparse use of preposition
- rigid word order ⇒ Subj Predicate & VO & PrepN & NAdj & NRel & N PP
- inflection ⇔ free order; ¬inflection ⇔ rigid order
- number (noun) ⇒ the same number (pronoun)
- IF alignment is predominantly ergative, THEN (i) subject is initial and verb final, (ii) subject and predicate are separated intonationally, (iii) object tends to be morphologically unmarked, and (iv) subject has a special morphological marker.
- primary topicalization ⇒ accusative alignment
- postconsonantal aspiration ⇒ prevocalic aspiration
- Inversion of word order is always available to convey logical or emotional emphasis.
- IF there is no category of definiteness/indefiniteness, THEN word order is used for distinguishing 'given' (coming closer to the beginning of the sentence) and 'new' information (closer to its end).
- Reduplication is used as a productive grammatical way of word formation and inflection.
- The citation form of the noun tends to be the nominative case form.
- ergative (nouns) ⇒ non-zero allomorphs
- In a dominant order the object and the verb are juxtaposed, uninterrupted by the subject (i.e., SVO, SOV, VOS, OVS, but not VSO, OSV).
- In a dominant order no more than one of these three principles ... can be violated.
- IF the dominant order is OS, THEN the order VS is also dominant.
- IF morphology is agglutinative, THEN inflectional affixes tend to be longer.
- IF morphology is agglutinative, THEN derivational affixes tend to have more complex syllabic structure.
- IF there are high syllable-per-sentence and high syllable-per-word ratios & simple syllables & agglutinative morphology, THEN basic word order will be (S)OV.
- topic markers ⇒ SOV
- Every language has cleft constructions, either wh-clefts or it-clefts or both.
- agglutinative ⇔ ¬ gender inflection
- Prep ⇒ (¬ SOV ⇒ N Rel)
- Pl (nouns) ⇒ Pl (pronouns)
- gender ⇒ gender (3 person)
- IF alignment is non-accusative, THEN there will be verb-initial order.
- Verb taking an effected or annihilated object (in particular verbs meaning ‘to create’ and ‘to destroy’) are transitive in all relevant morphosyntactic respects.
- With verbs with the general meaning 'destroy' or 'create', agents will be subject and patients direct object in basic (active) constructions.
- ergative/nominative (noun) ⇒ ergative/nominative (3 person & V Dem)
- In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object, the dominant order is always one in which the subject precedes the object.
- In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the conclusion as the normal order in all languages.
- Every language has a numeral system of finite scope.
- Zero is never expressed as part of the numeral system.
- IF a number is expressed by subtraction, or a subtraction occurs as a constituent of a complex expression, THEN the subtrahend is never larger than the remainder.
- IF a number is expressed by subtraction as y-x, THEN every number z (z>y>n) is also expressed subtractively and with y as the minuend.
- The degree of morphological fusion varies inversely with the size of the numerical value.
- The construction with the interrogative 'how many?' is usually the same as that with the highest block of numerals.
- agglutinative ⇒ ¬ gender inflection
- IF there is grammatical gender, THEN morphology is flexive.
- blue ⇒ green & yellow ⇒ red ⇒ black & white